Battle site of Solway Moss (1542) -

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After the battle at Hadden Rigg in August 1542, an army of 10.000 under the command of Oliver Sinclair of Pitcairns, was to push as far into England as they could, however, the advance was met between the Rivers Lyne and Esk in the Parish of Arthuret, five and a half miles north of Carlisle by Sir Thomas Wharton and a much smaller force of 3000 men. Although James V thought highly of Sinclair, it emerged that the nobles he was to command simply couldn't stand the 'upstart'. There was some vicious in-fighting and before the battle there were even nobles who returned home.

Also among the foot soldiers, the Borderers reviewed their loyalty to a King who had persecuted them throughout his reign. Many regarded capture by the English favourable to death for a tyrant.

The battle, on 24 November, was uncoordinated and resulted in an English victory. Twelve hundred Scots, including Sinclair, were taken prisoner.

James had not accompanied the army. He remained instead at Lochmaben on the Scottish side of the Border and awaited news of the invasion. When the news came he fled to Edinburgh. He died a fortnight after the battle at Linlithgow.