Battle site of Carham (1018) -

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River Tweed at Carham cc-by-sa/2.0 - © David Martin -


The battle of Carham was probably fought in 1018. In the time that the kingdom of Northumbria nearly stretched as far as Edinburgh the Vikings had established themselves at York. The northern Northumbrian lords were therefore cut of from the rest of the kingdom. They came under attack from the Scottish king Malcolm II and the king of Strathclyde, Owain the Bald. The 'final' battle was at Carham and the Scots emerged victorious. 

Although there are hardly any facts known about this battle itself, it is recognized as one of the most important battles in Scottish history as Malcolm's victory firmly established the River Tweed as the Anglo-Scottish border.